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The Labor Demand Was Downward Sloping: Disentangling Migrants' Inflows and Outflows, 1929-1957
by Costanza Biavaschi
(November 2012)
published in: Economics Letters, 2013, 118 (3), 531534

Abstract:
This paper studies in- and out-migration from the U.S. during the first half of the twentieth century and assesses how these flows affected state-level labor markets. It shows that out-migration positively impacted the wages of remaining workers, while in-migration had a negative impact. Hence, immigrant arrivals were substitutes of the existing workforce, while out-migration reduced the competitive pressure on labor markets.
Text: See Discussion Paper No. 7049